One exception is the Gelastocoridae, which are riparian and possess short antennae. The truly Most aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera are predatory. Hemiptera, Gelastocoridae, Nerthra, China. Introduction. Toad bugs ( Gelastocoridae) are a remarkable group of aquatic bugs (Nepomorpha). which are derived. Key to California semiaquatic and aquatic Hemiptera based on habitats and habits of the Nepomor- pha. suggested that the Ochteridae and Gelastocoridae.

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Articles from ZooKeys are provided here courtesy of Pensoft Publishers. Hemelytra not quite reaching end of abdomen in the females, membrane well developed; embolium narrow at base, dilated before middle, anterior portion and apex of dilation more or less rounded.


Anthocoridae minute pirate bugs or flower bugs Cimicidae bed bugs, bat bugs Curaliidae Curalium cronini Joppeicidae Lasiochilidae Lyctocoridae Medocostidae Microphysidae Miridae plant bugs, leaf bugs, grass bugs Nabidae damsel bugs Pachynomidae Plokiophilidae Polyctenidae old world bat bugs Reduviidae assassin bugs, wheel bugs, thread-legged bugs Thaumastocoridae royal gelastocooridae bugs Tingidae lace bugs Velocipedidae. Australia wide Sensitivity Rating: Published online May Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa Helotrephidae Pleidae pygmy backswimmers.

Received Oct 14; Accepted Apr It is divided into two subfamilies, Gelastocorinae and Nerthrinae. Lobes of ovipositor asymmetrical slightly he,iptera and projecting posteriorly.

Identification and Ecology of Australian Freshwater Invertebrates

Gelastocoridae catch their prey by leaping on top of them and grasping them with their modified front legs. Transactions of the American Entomological Society Abdominal sternites of female nearly symmetrical except for posterior margin of last sternite, which is slightly emarginated, but with apex slightly convex just below the lobes of the ovipositor, the latter somewhat hwmiptera and the left one overlapping the right.


HemipteraGelastocoridaeNerthraChina. Alydidae broad-headed bugs Coreidae squash bugs, leaf-footed bugs Hyocephalidae Rhopalidae scentless plant bugs Stenocephalidae. Body dorsally brown, with variable yellowish or other marking, often obscured by muddy crust. The life cycle is poorly known. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington The Nerthrinae includes one fossil genus, Cratonerthra Martins-Neto, with two species Ruf et al.

Nymphs of many species cover themselves with a layer of sand grains. Bal A, Basu RC. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Hemelytra not extending to the end of the abdomen, membrane well developed; embolium with the basal half of the lateral margin nearly straight, not expanded laterally at middle. Classification and Natural History 2 ed. Aenictopecheidae Enicocephalidae unique-headed bugs, gnat bugs.

Corixoidea Corixidae water boatmen. Cicadidae Tettigarctidae hairy cicadas. Northern Hemisphere species seem to be nocturnal, hiding and resting during the day then crawling across wet or damp substrata at night to forage and hunt. The male genitalia were examined in glycerol and illustrated using a Zeiss Discovery V8 microscope.

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Key to genera adapted from 3. Mononyx turgidulus Distant, Very little is known about the biology of Australian Hmiptera species. Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae pit scales Beesoniidae beesoniids Carayonemidae carayonemids Cerococcidae ornate pit scales Coccidae soft scales Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae cochineals Diaspididae armored scales Eriococcidae felt scales Halimococcidae pupillarial palm scales Kermesidae Kerriidae lac scales Lecanodiaspididae false pit scales Margarodidae cottony cushion scales, giant coccids, ground pearls Micrococcidae Mediterranean scales Monophlebidae giant scales Ortheziidae ensign scales Phenacoleachiidae phenacoleachiids Phoenicococcidae palm scales Pseudococcidae mealybugs Putoidae giant mealybugs Stictococcidae stictococcids.


Scutellum slightly darker than rest of dorsal surface Fig.

Mononyx indicus Atkinson, Gelastocorid bugs manage a staggered run to seize prey, killing it with their needle-like mouthparts. University of Kansas Science Bulletin Toad bugs Gelastocoridae are a remarkable group of aquatic bugs Nepomorpha which are derived from aquatic ancestors and have become secondarily terrestrial Hebsgaard et al.

Lingnan Science Journal 12 Supplement: Right gwlastocoridae swollen apically and stick out at middle. British Museum Natural HistoryLondon67— Ventral surface dark brown, the bases of the middle and hind legs with a few patches of yellowish brown.

Family Gelastocoridae – Toad Bugs –

Nerthra arunachalensis Thirumalai, Figs 1A, B ; 2A—G. Nova Guinea, New Series Lobes of ovipositor slightly projecting posteriorly; posterior margin of last visible abdominal sternite triangularly emarginate Fig.

Mononyx grossus Montandon,